1. Energy: Energy broadly means the capacity of something, a person, an animal or a physical system to do work and produce change. — Used in science to describe how much potential a physical system has to change. Sources of Energy. Conventional sources of energy Non conventional sources of energy.
2. Non Conventional Energy sources: Those energy sources which are renewable and ecologically safe. —such as solar energy, wind energy, biomass energy, ocean energy (tidal energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy), geothermal energy, nuclear energy etc. —Some sources of energy are non renewable like coal, petroleum and natural gas.
3. About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. —New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly. —The share of renewable in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable.
4. WIND ENERGY
5. Wind energy : Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Wind energy is used in wind mills which converts the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy. The kinetic energy of wind can be used to do mechanical work like lifting water from wells or grinding grains in flour mills. A single wind mill produces only a small amount of electricity. large number of wind mills in a large area are coupled together to produce more electricity in wind energy farms. The minimum wind speed required is15km/hr. At present Wind power potential of India is 1020 MW Largest wind farm is near Kanyakumari in Tamilnadu generate 380 MW electricity
6. Wind farm
8. Advantages : It is a renewable source of energy. It does not cause pollution. The recurring cost is less. Once the wind turbine is built the energy it produces does not cause green house gases Disadvantages Wind is not available at all times. It requires a large area of land. A minimum wind speed of 15 km/h is required.
9. Solar energy : energy obtained from the sun in the form of heat and light. Energy derived in the form of solar radiation. —The solar energy received by the near earth space is approximately 1.4 kilojoules/second known as solar constant The heat energy is used in solar heating devices like solar cooker, solar water heater, solar furnaces etc. The light energy is used in solar cells.
10. Various technologies in which solar energy can be used:- Solar cookers Solar hot water systems Solar dryers —Solar air heaters —Solar desalination systems Solar batteries
11. Solar cooker : The box type solar cooker has an insulated box painted black inside. It is covered by a glass plate which allows heat to enter inside but does not allow heat to escape out. It has a mirror to reflect more sunlight into the box. The food to be cooked is kept in containers inside the box It can produce a temperature of 100° to 140°.
12. Solar water heater :A solar water heater has an insulated box painted black inside with a system of copper tubes. It is covered with a glass plate which allows heat to enter inside but does not allow heat to escape out. When water flows through the copper tube it absorbs heat and becomes hot.
13. Solar cell Device which converts solar energy into electrical energy. — Solar cells are made from semi conductors like silicon, germanium, gallium etc. A single solar cell produces a voltage of about 0.5 to 1 V and produces about 0.7 W electricity. several solar cells are arranged in a solar panel to produce more electricity.
14. SOLAR PANELS SOLAR LAMP
15. Advantages of Solar Energy After initial investment, all the electricity you produce is free. It is abundant. It is everlasting. It is available almost everywhere. It is free from political barriers. Incentives and rebates from governments and utility companies offset the initial investment. Reduce or completely eliminate your electric bill. Cost of solar panels are decreasing while efficiency is increasing.
16. Hydro power plants : In hydro power plants water from rivers are stored by constructing dams. Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. They are often used in water rich areas as a remote-area power supply (RAPS). Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems derive kinetic energy from rivers and oceans without using a dam. E.g: Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State and the Akosombo Dam in Ghana.
17. Advantages of Hydro power energy: Flowing water is a renewable source of energy. The electricity produced does not cause pollution. The water stored in dams can also be used to control floods and for irrigation. Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant-rate. Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right. Disadvantages : The initial cost is high. Large areas of land gets submerged and the decomposition of vegetation produces methane gas which is a green house gas. It causes displacement of people from large areas of land.
18. Biogas plant : Mixture of gases containing methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide. It is produced by anaerobic degradation of animal waste. Anaerobic degradation means break down of organic matter by bacteria in the absence of oxygen. The biogas plant has a large underground tank made of bricks and cement. The lower part is the digester and the upper part has a dome with a gas outlet.
19. Animal dung is mixed with water in the mixing tank and the slurry is sent into the digester. The gas is taken out through the gas outlet and used for heating and lighting purposes. The slurry left behind is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus and is used as manure for crops. From cattle dung alone we can produce biogas of a magnitude of 22,500 MW annually. A sixty cubic feet gobar gas plant can serve the needs of one average family. This gas contains 55 – 70 percent methane, which is inflammable and it is generally used as cooking gas and for generation of electricity.
20. FIXED DOME TYPE BIOGAS PLANT
21. Advantages of Biogas Clean, non-polluting and cheap Direct supply of gas from tank. No maintence cost Does not cause any health hazard. Provides us both the fuel and the manure.
22. TIDAL ENERGY
23. Tidal energy : Produced by gravitational forces of sun and moon. Produced by making the use of water movement from a high tide to a low tide. The high tide to a low tide refers to the rise and fall of water in the ocean. A difference of several meters is required between the high and low tide. — Ocean waves and tides can be made to turn a turbine and generate electricity. Areas where rivers flow into the sea experience waves and tides and electricity can be generated there. It has much potential.
24. Tidal energy
25. As you know we have a large coastline and major river systems in our country, electricity can be generated on a large scale from waves and tides. The periodic rise and fall of sea level due to gravitational attraction of the moon causes tides. A Tidal barrage is constructed at a narrow opening between the land and sea. The movement of water during high tide and low tide can be used to rotate the turbines of generators to produce electricity. Tidal power site In india :-gulf of cambay, gulf of Kutch and the sunder bans delta.
26. GEO-THERMAL ENERGY
27. Geothermal energy : It means the energy harnessed from the hot rocks present inside the earth . High temperature, high pressure steam fields exit below the earth’s surface in many places. At the core, temperatures may reach over 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit. This heat comes from the fission of radioactive material naturally present in the rocks. The deeper regions of the earth’s crust is very hot. This heat melts rocks and forms magma. The magma moves up and collects below at some places called Hot spots. The underground water in contact with hot spot gets heated into steam at high pressure. — By drilling holes into hot spots the steam coming out can be used to rotate turbines of generators to produce electricity.
28. Contd.. There are 46 hydrothermal areas in India where the water temperature normally exceeds 150 degree centigrade. Electricity can be generated from these hot springs. In many places the the hot water comes out of the ground through cracks in the form of Natural geysers:E.g. Manikaran, Kullu and sohana, Haryana. — Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%).
29. Advantages of Geothermal Energy Significant Cost Saving : Geothermal energy generally involves low running costs since it saves 80% costs over fossil fuels and no fuel is used to generate the power. Reduce Reliance on Fossil Fuels : Dependence on fossil fuels decreases with the increase in the use of geothermal energy. With the sky-rocketing prices of oil, many countries are pushing companies to adopt these clean sources of energy. Environmental Benefits : helped in reducing global warming and pollution , does not create any pollution as it releases some gases from deep within the earth which are not very harmful to the environment. Direct Use : Since ancient times, people having been using this source of energy for taking bath, heating homes, preparing food and today this is also used for direct heating of homes and offices. Job Creation and Economic Benefits .
31. Biofuel:Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Liquid biofuels include bioalcohols, such as bioethanol, and oils, such as biodiesel. Gaseous biofuels include biogas, landfill gas and synthetic gas . Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. Trees and grasses, are also used as feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form.
32. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils , animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using trans esterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. Biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's transport fuel in 2010.
33. Advantages of Bio-diesel It is an agriculture based fuel substitute. It can be made from both vegetable oil and animal fats. It can be used without major modifications in engines. — It does not need separate infrastructure for storage and delivery. Handling bio-diesel is safer. — It’s combustion emits less carbon monoxide, sulphates, unburnt hydrocarbons and particulate matters, thus reduces air pollution.
34. Nuclear plant
35. Nuclear energy :Nuclear energy is the energy is the energy released during nuclear reactions. —some mass is converted into energy very large amount of energy is produced during nuclear reactions. Nuclear reactions are of two types:Nuclear fission :- the nucleus of a heavy atom like uranium, plutonium, etc. splits into smaller nuclei with the release of a large amount of energy. It is used to make atom bombs and to produce electricity.
36. Nuclear fission :In a nuclear power plant the heat energy produced by a controlled nuclear —Fission chain reaction is used to produce steam which rotates the turbines of generators to produce electricity. NUCLEAR FUSION:A nuclear reaction in which small nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus with the release of a very large amount of energy. —The energy of sun is produced by the fusion of hydrogen nuclei to form helium nucleus. —It is also used to make the hydrogen bomb.
37. Advantages of nuclear energy : It produces a very large amount of energy per unit mass than any other source of energy. —If safety measures are taken, it is more environment friendly than fossil fuels. Disadvantages:- The cost of a nuclear reactor is very high. The availability of nuclear fuel is limited. — Nuclear reactors produce harmful nuclear wastes which is difficult to dispose.
38. Conservation and Use of Natural Resources Minimize exploitation of non-renewable energy resources. Emphasis on use of renewable sources of energy. Stop wastage of energy. — Creating awareness among people regarding wise and judicious use of energy. More use of bio-mass based energy
39. Project on which we work:We contributed towards our work by educating workers regarding environment. 1. How to make surroundings clean and green. 2. How to retain it for so long.
40. Cleaning of Plot under process:-
41. We met councilor of ward no. 59:Tanvir Singh Dhaliwal Plot in karnail singh nagar ,phase -2 ,pakhowal road ,ludhiana .
42. Plantation :- Hibiscus plant more types of vegetables . rose plant and many